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Gasification of biofuel

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Biomass gasification: biofuel gasifiers for the generation of heat and electric power

There are several ways (combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) of the biomass energy conversion into more conventional forms of energy. The biomass gasification aimed at the following production of electricity or heat by power plants and heating boiler rooms is one of promising ways. It is no secret that the direct combustion of indigenous solid fuels is not practical because of a low performance (30-50%) of the technology. The performance increases through the gasification of solid biofuel in pure form or mixed with other organic fuels. The biomass gasification resulting in the production of combustible (power) gases by the gas generators is one of the most efficient way. Besides, the operation of thermomechanical equipment becomes more reliable, economical, environmentally sound and secure. Modern gas generators are able to assure a high efficiency of the combustion of all solid biofuels during the gas generation.

The biomass gasification is the combustion of biofuel at a temperature 800-1500 °С with the presence of air or oxygen and water, which results in synthesis gas or power gas with a heat of combustion from 10000 kJ/m3 to 16700 kJ/m3. The application of the gasification technologies to solid fuel as to a component of biomass makes possible its usage in the operation of all kinds of internal combustion engines. Furthermore, the use of gas-powered units causes practically no changes for the power of motor; environmental performance improves significantly; the durability of the engine service life increases by 40-50%. The replacement of refined oil products and natural gas by a cheap solid biofuel (wood wastes, specially treated agricultural waste, etc.) makes possible to obtain a considerable economic advantage.

Biomass gas generators

The gas generators able to convert organic fuel (branch wood cuttings, firewood, peats, wood briquettes and other wastes) to the fuel for internal combustion engines and also for the engines of power generating sets are elaborated and successfully brought into operation in Ukraine. An inconsiderable engine power loss within 5-15% is possible because of a lower calorific value of power gas in comparison with petroleum products, but a number of technical measures, such as running of the fan for example, is able to compensate for the given power loss.

The operation of the gas-powered internal combustion engines followed by the generation of electricity applies strict conditions to the gasifier use and to the quality of produced gas. The necessity of gas cleaning, cooling and blending makes the technology relatively complicated and the experience of such equipment operation shows that these plants are sensitive to the changes in the fuel parameters, the equipment workload, the service quality and environmental condition. Biomass gasifiers usually consist of four main constituent parts: (1) biofuel preparation and delivery system; (2) reactor; (3) gas cleaning system, gas cooling and blending system; (4) power unit (internal combustion engine for example) including the generator or pumping unit, or  furnace gas burner.

Wood wastes (flake, chips, bark, etc.) and crop wastes (straw, stalks, husks of sunflower and cornstalks, etc.) thermal and power plants can be built basing on modern gas generators.

Rentechno offers for biomass gasification projects

Our company will provide you with the assistance in engineering, assembly and installation of gas generating plants with the power from 50 kW to 1 MW operated on chips, fuel briquettes, wood wastes. The modernisation of the given equipment for the operation on different kinds of biomass, including agricultural wastes, is also possible. Besides, RENTECHNO realises the conversion from natural gas to biofuel alternative for various plants. Average economies obtained from the implementation of such projects comprise more than 50% in comparison with the units fuelled by natural gas.

Advantages of biomass gasification technology

  • Possible implementation of the projects of low power units (beginning from tens kW)
  • Relatively low capital input
  • A short payback period for the investment
  • Possible arrangement of relocatable plants
  • Avoiding traditional energy forms
  • Biomass gasification wastes can be used as fertilizers and construction additives
  • Environmentally sound generation of electricity

Projects of plants fuelled by biomass: reasons of preference

  1. Building of biomass powered TPPs and CHPPs assures independent supplies of power and heat. A thermal power plant can be operated 24 hours a day and all year round upon the availability of biomass in sufficient quantity.
  2. An average payback period of biomass projects comprises 5 years.
  3. It is possible to sell energy to the Government at the prices determined by green tariffs. If a project is brought into operation from April 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, the green tariff for biomass comprises 0.12386 euro per 1 kWh. If a project is brought into operation from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019, the green tariff for biomass comprises 0.12386 euro per 1 kWh.
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